Household insurance covers your household (furniture, clothing, work equipment, etc.) against theft, fire and weather damages. If you would like to insure your bicycle against theft outside of your basement or bicycle shed, you will most likely need an extra bicycle policy.
If a claimable event occurs, the insurance company assumes the costs for repairs or replacements of your household goods, clean-up work, and pays for example for a hotel room if the damages are such that they temporarily prevent you from staying in your own home.
In order for the insurance company to assume these costs, you have to prove that you owned the stolen or damaged objects. This is why you should keep receipts or photographs of your household goods outside of your home. Make sure to check when you sign the policy that the insured sum is not based on the size of your home, but rather on the specific value of your household goods.