Exzerpt Kommunikationsmodell Vinograd

Winograd, Terry. Understanding Natural Language. London: Academic Press, 1983, 13ff.

"Language is a process of communication between intelligent active processors, in which both the producer and the comprehender perform complex cognitive operations. The producer begins with communicative goals, including effects to be achieved, information to be conveyed, and atti-tudes to be expressed. These include such things as: causing an action, either verbal or non-verbal, on the part of the comprehender; causing the comprehender to make inferences or have reactions, either about the subject matter or about the interaction between producer and comprehender; con-veying information about some thing assumed to be known to the comprehender; getting the comprehender to be aware of some new thing known to the producer; and directing the compre-hender's attention to some thing or some of its properties, to establish context for a subsequent utterance. Some of these goals are subgoals of others [...]
In order to communicate, the producer must map this multi-dimensional collection of goals onto a sequence of sounds that can be uttered or marks that can be drawn on a page. The details of language structure and the nature of the processes involved in its use are greatly affected by the need to transmit meaning through these media [...]
A language provides a variety of information resources that can be manipulated by the producer [...] In order to make appropriate selections from this set of resources, the producer must combine the intended goals of the utterance with knowledge of what is being discussed and what the compre-hender already knows. The design of an utterance depends critically on the producer's expectations that the comprehender will make use of knowledge and intelligent reasoning to find interpreta-tions and fill in information that is not explicit. This reflexiveness is one of the key features of natural language, and must be taken into account explicitly in order to deal with any but the most trivialized notion of communication."

Winograd's Basic model of cooperative communication (1983, 14)

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