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In this research area, we are investigating the role of supervision in the training of psychologists and psychotherapists. In addition to the project "Simulated Patients in Training and Supervision for Evaluating Psychotherapeutic Competencies," funded by the German Research Foundation and presented under the research focus "Psychotherapeutic Competencies," the following projects are being pursued.

Live Supervision

This project focuses on the effectiveness of live supervision. In live supervision, psychotherapists receive feedback from an experienced supervisor during an ongoing therapy session, often through text messages displayed on a screen. In a systematic review (, we have summarized the existing findings on live supervision. In two additional experimental studies, we investigate the effectiveness of live supervision in enhancing the therapeutic skills of psychology students. Live supervision is compared to a condition without supervision (Study 1) or to "standard supervision" (Study 2).

In a single-case experimental design study, the efficacy of live supervision is examined under routine conditions. Approved psychotherapists receive live supervision or no supervision during their treatments. This study is conducted in collaboration with the Karolinska Institute.

In a comprehensive study utilizing data from the live supervision studies and data from Subproject II, we also explore how well guidance from supervision can be implemented by trainees in the subsequent therapy session.

Project Leader: Dr. Ulrike Maaß, OSF:

Cooperation: PhD Sven Alfonsson, M.Sc. Simon Fagernäs, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden



Quality of Supervision Sessions

In this subproject, we conducted a survey involving approximately 300 trainees and supervisors to assess how they perceive the effectiveness of their supervision sessions and to identify factors that influence this effectiveness, such as specific methods, fear of negative evaluation, the relationship with the supervisor, and more. As part of this study, we also developed and evaluated a questionnaire known as the "Quality of Supervision Questionnaire."

Project Leader: Dr. Ulrike Maaß, OSF: