Scientific Articles

These preprints are pre-published and currently under review:

Rasche, D., Weimar, J., Schrön, M., Köhli, M., Morgner, M., Güntner, A., and Blume, T.: A change in perspective: Downhole cosmic-ray neutron sensing for the estimation of soil moisture, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss. [preprint],, in review, 2022.

Schrön, M., Köhli, M., and Zacharias, S.: Signal contribution of distant areas to cosmic-ray neutron sensors – implications on footprint and sensitivity, EGUsphere [preprint],, 2022.

Kasner, M., Zacharias, S., and Schrön, M.: On soil bulk density and its influence to soil moisture estimation with cosmic-ray neutrons, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss. [preprint],, in review, 2022.

Köhli, M., Schrön, M., Zacharias, S., and Schmidt, U.: URANOS v1.0 – the Ultra Rapid Adaptable Neutron-Only Simulation for Environmental Research, Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss. [preprint],, in review, 2022.

Brogi, C., Bogena, H. R., Köhli, M., Huisman, J. A., Hendricks Franssen, H.-J., and Dombrowski, O.: Feasibility of Irrigation Monitoring with Cosmic-ray Neutron Sensors, Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst. Discuss. [preprint],, in review, 2022.

Jakobi, J., J.A. Huisman, H. Fuchs, H. Vereecken and H.R. Bogena (2022): Potential of Thermal Neutrons to Correct Cosmic-Ray Neutron Soil Moisture Content Measurements for Dynamic Biomass Effects. Water Resour. Res. 58(8): e2022WR031972.

Döpper, V., Jagdhuber, T., Holtgrave, A.-K., Heistermann, M., Francke, F., Kleinschmit, B., and Förster, M.: Following the cosmic-ray-neutron-sensing-based soil moisture under grassland and forest: Exploring the potential of optical and SAR remote sensing,
Science of Remote Sensing, 5,, 2022.

Heistermann, M., Bogena, H., Francke, T., Güntner, A., Jakobi, J., Rasche, D., Schrön, M., Döpper, V., Fersch, B., Groh, J., Patil, A., Pütz, T., Reich, M., Zacharias, S., Zengerle, C., and Oswald, S.: Soil moisture observation in a forested headwater catchment: combining a dense cosmic-ray neutron sensor network with roving and hydrogravimetry at the TERENO site Wüstebach, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 2501–2519,, 2022.

Bogena, H., Schrön, M., Jakobi, J., Ney, P., Zacharias, S., Andreasen, M., Baatz, R., Boorman, D., Duygu, B. M., Eguibar-Galán, M. A., Fersch, B., Franke, T., Geris, J., González Sanchis, M., Kerr, Y., Korf, T., Mengistu, Z., Mialon, A., Nasta, P., Nitychoruk, J., Pisinaras, V., Rasche, D., Rosolem, R., Said, H., Schattan, P., Zreda, M., Achleitner, S., Albentosa-Hernández, E., Akyürek, Z., Blume, T., del Campo, A., Canone, D., Dimitrova-Petrova, K., Evans, J. G., Ferraris, S., Frances, F., Gisolo, D., Güntner, A., Herrmann, F., Iwema, J., Jensen, K. H., Kunstmann, H., Lidón, A., Looms, M. C., Oswald, S., Panagopoulos, A., Patil, A., Power, D., Rebmann, C., Romano, N., Scheiffele, L. M., Seneviratne, S., Weltin, G., and Vereecken, H., 2022. COSMOS-Europe: A European Network of Cosmic-Ray Neutron Soil Moisture Sensors, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 1125–1151,

Francke, Till, Maik Heistermann, Markus Köhli, Christian Budach, Martin Schrön, and Sascha E. Oswald, 2022. Assessing the feasibility of a directional CRNS-sensor for estimating soil moisture, Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems, 11, 75–92, .


Schrön, M., S. E. Oswald, S. Zacharias, M. Kasner, P. Dietrich, S. Attinger, (2021). Neutrons on Rails - trans-regional monitoring of soil water content and snow, , Geophysical Research Letters; 48(24), e2021GL093924.

Rasche, D., Köhli, M., Schrön, M., Blume, T., and Güntner, A., (2021): Towards disentangling heterogeneous soil moisture patterns in cosmic-rayneutron sensor footprints, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 25, 6547–6566,

Heistermann, M., Francke, T., Schrön, M., Oswald S.E. (2021). Spatio-temporal soil moisture retrieval at the catchment-scale using a dense network of cosmic-ray neutron sensors, HESS, 25, 4807–4824,

Barbosa, L.R., Coelho, V., et al., Distributed groundwater recharge estimation in a tropical wet region based on remote sensing products and complementary reanalysis data, Journal of Hydrology, 2021. DOI:10.25932/publishup-46064

Jakobi, J., Huisman, J. A., Köhli, M., Rasche, D., Vereecken, H., & Bogena, H. R. (2021). The footprint characteristics of cosmic ray thermal neutrons. Geophysical Research Letters, 48, e2021GL094281.

Patil. A, Fersch, B., Hendricks Franssen, H.J., Kunstmann, H. Assimilation of cosmogenic neutron counts for improved soil moisture prediction in a distributed land surface model, Front. Water – Water and Hydrocomplexity, 2021

Jakobi, J., J.A. Huisman and H. Bogena (2021): Comment on Dong and Ochsner (2018): Soil Texture often exerts stronger Influence than Precipitation on Mesoscale Soil Moisture Patterns. Water Resour. Res. 57: e2020WR027790. DOI:10.1029/2020WR027790/

Köhli, M., Weimar, J., Schrön, M., Baatz, R. and Schmidt, U. (January 2021): Soil Moisture and Air Humidity Dependence of the Above-Ground Cosmic-Ray Neutron Intensity. Front. Water, 28 January 2021.


Scheiffele, L.M., Baroni, G., Trenton, E.F., Jakobi, J. and Oswald, S.E. (November 2020): A profile shape correction to reduce the vertical sensitivity of cosmic‐ray neutron sensing of soil moisture. Vadose Zone Journal. Volume19, Issue 1, 2020. (Creative-Commons-Lizenzen CC-BY 4.0)

Fersch, B., Francke, T., Heistermann, M., Schrön, M., Döpper, V., Jakobi, J., Baroni, G., Blume, T., Bogena, H., Budach, C., Gränzig, T., Förster, M., Güntner, A., Hendricks-Franssen, H.J., Kasner, M., Köhli,M.  Kleinschmit, B., Kunstmann, H., Patil, A., Rasche, D., Scheiffele, L., Schmidt, U., Szulc-Seyfried, S., Weimar, J., Zacharias, S., Zreda, M., Heber, B., Kiese, R., Mares, V., Mollenhauer, H., Völksch, I. and Oswald S. (September 2020): A dense network of cosmic-ray neutron sensors for soil moisture observation in a pre-alpine headwater catchment in Germany.  Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2289–2309.

Döpper, V., Gränzig, T., Kleinschmit, B., & Förster, M. (2020).Challenges in UAS-Based TIR Imagery Processing: Image Alignment and Uncertainty Quantification. Remote Sensing.

Weimar, J., Köhli, M., Budach, C. and Schmidt, U. (September 2020): Large-Scale Boron-Lined Neutron Detection Systems as a 3He Alternative for Cosmic Ray Neutron Sensing. Front. Water 2:16.

Jakobi, J., Huisman, J.A., Schrön, M., Fiedler, J., Brogi, C., Vereecken, H. and Bogena, H.R. (14 May 2020). Error Estimation for Soil Moisture Measurements With Cosmic Ray Neutron Sensing and Implications for Rover Surveys. Front. Water 2:10.

Fersch, B., Senatore, A., Adler, B., Arnault, J., Mauder, M., Schneider, K., Völksch, I., and Kunstmann, H. ( 13 May 2020 ). High-resolution fully coupled atmospheric–hydrological modeling: a cross-compartment regional water and energy cycle evaluation Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24. .


Schattan, P., Köhli, M., Schrön, M., Baroni, G., & Oswald, S. E. ( 2019). Sensing area‐average snow water equivalent with cosmic‐ray neutrons: The influence of fractional snow cover. Water Resources Research, 55. .

Dazhi Li, Martin Schrön, Markus Köhli, Heye Bogena, Jannis Weimar, Miguel Angel Jiménez Bello, Xujun Han,
Maria Amparo Martínez Gimeno, Steffen Zacharias, Harry Vereecken, and Harrie-Jan Hendricks Franssen (Oct. 2019). Can Drip Irrigation be Scheduled with Cosmic-Ray Neutron Sensing? Vadose Zone J., 18.


Fersch, B., Jagdhuber, T., Schrön, M., Völksch, I., & Jäger, M. (2018). Synergies for soil moisture retrieval across scales from airborne polarimetric SAR, cosmic ray neutron roving, and an in situ sensor network. Water Resources Research, 54.