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Scientific Articles

These preprints are pre-published and currently under review:

Rasche, D., Blume, T., and Güntner, A.: Depth-extrapolation of field-scale soil moisture time series derived with cosmic-ray neutron sensing using the SMAR model, EGUsphere [preprint],, in review, 2024.

Kasner, M., Zacharias, S., and Schrön, M.: On soil bulk density and its influence to soil moisture estimation with cosmic-ray neutrons, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss. [preprint],, in review, 2022.


Heistermann, M., Francke, T., Schrön, M., and Oswald, S. E.: Technical Note: Revisiting the general calibration of cosmic-ray neutron sensors to estimate soil water content, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 28, 989–1000,, 2024.


Scheiffele, L.M., Schrön, M., Köhli, M., Dimitrove-Petrova, K., Altdorff, D., Franz, T., Rosolem, R., Evans, J., Blake, J., Bogena, H., McJannet, D., Baroni, G., Desilets, D., Oswald, S.E.: Comment on ‘Examining the variation of soil moisture from cosmic-ray neutron probes footprint: experimental results from a COSMOS-UK site’ by Howells, O.D., Petropoulos, G.P., et al., Environ Earth Sci 82, 41 (2023). Environ Earth Sci 82, 474,, 2023.

Rasche, D., Weimar, J., Schrön, M., Köhli, M., Morgner, M., Güntner, A., and Blume, T.: A change in perspective: downhole cosmic-ray neutron sensing for the estimation of soil moisture, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 27, 3059–3082,, 2023.

Heistermann, M., Francke, T., Scheiffele, L., Dimitrova Petrova, K., Budach, C., Schrön, M., Trost, B., Rasche, D., Güntner, A., Döpper, V., Förster, M., Köhli, M., Angermann, L., Antonoglou, N., Zude-Sasse, M., and Oswald, S. E.: Three years of soil moisture observations by a dense cosmic-ray neutron sensing cluster at an agricultural research site in north-east Germany, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 3243–3262,, 2023.

Altdorff, D., Oswald, S. E., Zacharias, S., Zengerle, C., Dietrich, P., Mollenhauer, H., Attinger, S., Schrön, M.: Toward large-scale soil moisture monitoring using rail-based cosmic ray neutron sensing. Water Resources Research, 59, e2022WR033514., 2023

Brogi, C.; Pisinaras, V.; Köhli, M.; Dombrowski, O.; Hendricks Franssen, H.-J.; Babakos, K.; Chatzi, A.; Panagopoulos, A.; Bogena, H.R.: Monitoring Irrigation in Small Orchards with Cosmic-Ray Neutron Sensors. Sensors, 23, 2378.,  2023

Dega, S., Dietrich, P., Schrön, M., and Paasche, H.: Probabilistic prediction by means of the propagation of response variable uncertainty through a Monte Carlo approach in regression random forest: Application to soil moisture regionalization, Front. Environ. Sci., doi:10.3389/fenvs.2023.1009191, 2023

Schrön, M., Köhli, M., and Zacharias, Z.: Signal contribution of distant areas to cosmic-ray neutron sensors – implications for footprint and sensitivity, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., doi:10.5194/hess-27-723-2023, 2023

Markus Köhli, M., Schrön, M., Zacharias, S., and Schmidt, U.: URANOS v1.0 – the Ultra Rapid Adaptable Neutron-Only Simulation for Environmental Research, Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 449–477,, 2023


Brogi, C., Bogena, H. R., Köhli, M., Huisman, J. A., Hendricks Franssen, H.-J., and Dombrowski, O.: Feasibility of Irrigation Monitoring with Cosmic-ray Neutron Sensors, Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 11, 451–469,, 2022

Jakobi, J., J.A. Huisman, H. Fuchs, H. Vereecken and H.R. Bogena: Potential of Thermal Neutrons to Correct Cosmic-Ray Neutron Soil Moisture Content Measurements for Dynamic Biomass Effects. Water Resour. Res. 58(8): e2022WR031972., 2022

Döpper, V., Jagdhuber, T., Holtgrave, A.-K., Heistermann, M., Francke, F., Kleinschmit, B., and Förster, M.: Following the cosmic-ray-neutron-sensing-based soil moisture under grassland and forest: Exploring the potential of optical and SAR remote sensing,
Science of Remote Sensing, 5,, 2022.

Heistermann, M., Bogena, H., Francke, T., Güntner, A., Jakobi, J., Rasche, D., Schrön, M., Döpper, V., Fersch, B., Groh, J., Patil, A., Pütz, T., Reich, M., Zacharias, S., Zengerle, C., and Oswald, S.: Soil moisture observation in a forested headwater catchment: combining a dense cosmic-ray neutron sensor network with roving and hydrogravimetry at the TERENO site Wüstebach, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 2501–2519,, 2022.

Bogena, H., Schrön, M., Jakobi, J., Ney, P., Zacharias, S., Andreasen, M., Baatz, R., Boorman, D., Duygu, B. M., Eguibar-Galán, M. A., Fersch, B., Franke, T., Geris, J., González Sanchis, M., Kerr, Y., Korf, T., Mengistu, Z., Mialon, A., Nasta, P., Nitychoruk, J., Pisinaras, V., Rasche, D., Rosolem, R., Said, H., Schattan, P., Zreda, M., Achleitner, S., Albentosa-Hernández, E., Akyürek, Z., Blume, T., del Campo, A., Canone, D., Dimitrova-Petrova, K., Evans, J. G., Ferraris, S., Frances, F., Gisolo, D., Güntner, A., Herrmann, F., Iwema, J., Jensen, K. H., Kunstmann, H., Lidón, A., Looms, M. C., Oswald, S., Panagopoulos, A., Patil, A., Power, D., Rebmann, C., Romano, N., Scheiffele, L. M., Seneviratne, S., Weltin, G., and Vereecken, H., 2022. COSMOS-Europe: A European Network of Cosmic-Ray Neutron Soil Moisture Sensors, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 1125–1151,

Francke, Till, Maik Heistermann, Markus Köhli, Christian Budach, Martin Schrön, and Sascha E. Oswald, 2022. Assessing the feasibility of a directional CRNS-sensor for estimating soil moisture, Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems, 11, 75–92, .


Schrön, M., S. E. Oswald, S. Zacharias, M. Kasner, P. Dietrich, S. Attinger, (2021). Neutrons on Rails - trans-regional monitoring of soil water content and snow, , Geophysical Research Letters; 48(24), e2021GL093924.

Rasche, D., Köhli, M., Schrön, M., Blume, T., and Güntner, A., (2021): Towards disentangling heterogeneous soil moisture patterns in cosmic-rayneutron sensor footprints, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 25, 6547–6566,

Heistermann, M., Francke, T., Schrön, M., Oswald S.E. (2021). Spatio-temporal soil moisture retrieval at the catchment-scale using a dense network of cosmic-ray neutron sensors, HESS, 25, 4807–4824,

Barbosa, L.R., Coelho, V., et al., Distributed groundwater recharge estimation in a tropical wet region based on remote sensing products and complementary reanalysis data, Journal of Hydrology, 2021. DOI:10.25932/publishup-46064

Jakobi, J., Huisman, J. A., Köhli, M., Rasche, D., Vereecken, H., & Bogena, H. R. (2021). The footprint characteristics of cosmic ray thermal neutrons. Geophysical Research Letters, 48, e2021GL094281.

Patil. A, Fersch, B., Hendricks Franssen, H.J., Kunstmann, H. Assimilation of cosmogenic neutron counts for improved soil moisture prediction in a distributed land surface model, Front. Water – Water and Hydrocomplexity, 2021

Jakobi, J., J.A. Huisman and H. Bogena (2021): Comment on Dong and Ochsner (2018): Soil Texture often exerts stronger Influence than Precipitation on Mesoscale Soil Moisture Patterns. Water Resour. Res. 57: e2020WR027790. DOI:10.1029/2020WR027790/

Köhli, M., Weimar, J., Schrön, M., Baatz, R. and Schmidt, U. (January 2021): Soil Moisture and Air Humidity Dependence of the Above-Ground Cosmic-Ray Neutron Intensity. Front. Water, 28 January 2021.


Scheiffele, L.M., Baroni, G., Trenton, E.F., Jakobi, J. and Oswald, S.E. (November 2020): A profile shape correction to reduce the vertical sensitivity of cosmic‐ray neutron sensing of soil moisture. Vadose Zone Journal. Volume19, Issue 1, 2020. (Creative-Commons-Lizenzen CC-BY 4.0)

Fersch, B., Francke, T., Heistermann, M., Schrön, M., Döpper, V., Jakobi, J., Baroni, G., Blume, T., Bogena, H., Budach, C., Gränzig, T., Förster, M., Güntner, A., Hendricks-Franssen, H.J., Kasner, M., Köhli,M.  Kleinschmit, B., Kunstmann, H., Patil, A., Rasche, D., Scheiffele, L., Schmidt, U., Szulc-Seyfried, S., Weimar, J., Zacharias, S., Zreda, M., Heber, B., Kiese, R., Mares, V., Mollenhauer, H., Völksch, I. and Oswald S. (September 2020): A dense network of cosmic-ray neutron sensors for soil moisture observation in a pre-alpine headwater catchment in Germany.  Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2289–2309.

Döpper, V., Gränzig, T., Kleinschmit, B., & Förster, M. (2020).Challenges in UAS-Based TIR Imagery Processing: Image Alignment and Uncertainty Quantification. Remote Sensing.

Weimar, J., Köhli, M., Budach, C. and Schmidt, U. (September 2020): Large-Scale Boron-Lined Neutron Detection Systems as a 3He Alternative for Cosmic Ray Neutron Sensing. Front. Water 2:16.

Jakobi, J., Huisman, J.A., Schrön, M., Fiedler, J., Brogi, C., Vereecken, H. and Bogena, H.R. (14 May 2020). Error Estimation for Soil Moisture Measurements With Cosmic Ray Neutron Sensing and Implications for Rover Surveys. Front. Water 2:10.

Fersch, B., Senatore, A., Adler, B., Arnault, J., Mauder, M., Schneider, K., Völksch, I., and Kunstmann, H. ( 13 May 2020 ). High-resolution fully coupled atmospheric–hydrological modeling: a cross-compartment regional water and energy cycle evaluation Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24. .


Schattan, P., Köhli, M., Schrön, M., Baroni, G., & Oswald, S. E. ( 2019). Sensing area‐average snow water equivalent with cosmic‐ray neutrons: The influence of fractional snow cover. Water Resources Research, 55. .

Dazhi Li, Martin Schrön, Markus Köhli, Heye Bogena, Jannis Weimar, Miguel Angel Jiménez Bello, Xujun Han,
Maria Amparo Martínez Gimeno, Steffen Zacharias, Harry Vereecken, and Harrie-Jan Hendricks Franssen (Oct. 2019). Can Drip Irrigation be Scheduled with Cosmic-Ray Neutron Sensing? Vadose Zone J., 18.


Fersch, B., Jagdhuber, T., Schrön, M., Völksch, I., & Jäger, M. (2018). Synergies for soil moisture retrieval across scales from airborne polarimetric SAR, cosmic ray neutron roving, and an in situ sensor network. Water Resources Research, 54.