Peer Reviewed Articles and Chapters

Entrich, Steve R. (under review): New Horizontal Inequalities in Japanese Education? Examining Socioeconomic and Aspirational Selectivity in Pre-College Study Abroad Participation. International Studies in Sociology of Education (1st revision). Preprint DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.21733.83685

Entrich, Steve R. (2021): Understanding Cross-National Differences in Inclusive Education Coverage: An Empirical Analysis. IAFOR Journal of Education 9(1), special issue “Inclusive Education” (Guest editor: Tamsin Hinton-Smith): in press. Preprint DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.16802.04807

Entrich, Steve R. & Wolfgang Lauterbach (2021): Fearful future: Worldwide shadow education epidemic and the reproduction of inequality outside public schooling. In: Young-Chun Kim & Jung-Hoon Jung (eds.), Theorizing Shadow Education and Academic Success in East Asia: Understanding the Meaning, Value, and Use of Shadow Education by East Asian Students. Routledge (in press).

Entrich, Steve R. (2021): Worldwide Shadow Education and Social Inequality: Explaining Differences in the Socioeconomic Gap in Access to Shadow Education across 63 Societies. International Journal of Comparative Sociologyspecial issue "Education systems, institutional characteristics and inequalities" (Guest editors: Christiane Gross & Andreas Hadjar): in press. DOI:

Entrich, Steve R. & Sang-Hoon Bae (2021): Extended Education at College and its Outcomes: An Introduction. International Journal of Research on Extended Education 9(1): in press.

Entrich, Steve R. & Soo-yong Byun (2020): Supplementary Education at College and Its Consequences for Individual’s Labor Market Outcomes in the United States. International Journal of Research on Extended Education 9(1): in press.  [link]

Entrich, Steve R. & Wolfgang Lauterbach (2020): Gender- and SES-specific Disparities in Shadow Education: Compensation for Boys, Status upgrade for Girls? Evidence from the German LifE Study. Orbis Scholae 14(2): 13-38. DOI:

Netz, Nicolai, Daniel Klasik, Steve R. Entrich & Michelle Barker (2020): Socio-demographics: A global overview of inequalities in education abroad participation. In: Anthony C. Ogden, Bernhard Streitwieser & Christof Van Mol (eds.), Education Abroad: Bridging Scholarship and Practice. Routledge, Internationalization in Higher Education. [link] [pdf]

Entrich, Steve R. & Wolfgang Lauterbach (2019): Shadow Education in Germany: Compensatory or Status Attainment Strategy? Findings from the German LifE Study. International Journal of Research on Extended Education 7(2): 143-159. DOI:

Entrich, Steve R. (2019): Wer geht während der Schulzeit ins Ausland? Soziale Selektivität in der Akkumulation Transnationalen Humankapitals in Japan. Japan Jahrbuch 42: 230-261. (in German) [link] [pdf]

Entrich, Steve R. (2019): More Individual Choice? Students’ Share in Educational Decision-Making at the Transition to High School in Japan (1995-2009). Asia Pacific Journal of Education 39(3): 271-289. DOI: 10.1080/02188791.2019.1611540

Taki, Hirofumi & Entrich, Steve R. (2018): Daigaku nyūshi no tayō-ka to gakkō-gai kyōiku riyō [Diversification of university entrance examinations and use of out-of-school education in Japan]. In: Fumiaki Ojima & Sohei Aramaki (eds.), Kōkōsei-tachi no yukue - gakkō paneru chōsa kara mita shinro to seikatsu no 30-nen [High school students’ pathways - 30 years of life course and school life trajectories as seen from a school panel survey]. Tokyo: Sekai Shisō-sha: 142-159. [link] [pdf] (in Japanese) 

Entrich, Steve R. & Lan Yu (2017): Rìběn “yǐngzi jiàoyù” juécè de bèihòu: Yuán yú xuéshēng de xuǎnzé háishì láizì jiāzhǎng de yālì? [Behind shadow education decision-making in Japan: A student’s choice or parental pressure?]. Educational Science Research 28(5): 67-76. (in Chinese)  [link] [pdf] 

Entrich, Steve R. & Yoko Yamato (2017): Nihon no juku kyōiku: Juku kenkyū no hitsuyō-sei [Japan’s Juku: Why Academics Should Care (More)!] In: Chiba Juku Association (ed.), Setsuritsu san jū-shūnen kinen-shi [Chiba Juku Association30th anniversary commemorative book]. Yachiyo publishing: 14-24. (in Japanese & English) DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.18998.86089

Entrich, Steve R. (2016): Zunehmende Bildungsungleichheiten in Japan? Der Einfluss von Unsicherheit auf Bildungsinvestitionen von den 1990ern bis heute. Japan Jahrbuch 39: 228-257. (in German) [link] [pdf] 

Entrich, Steve R. (2016): Der Bedarf nach mehr: Erklärungen für die Persistenz der Juku-Industrie. Bildung und Erziehung 69(2): 155-174. (in German) DOI: 10.7788/bue-2016-0204

Entrich, Steve R. (2015): The Decision for Shadow Education in Japan: Students’ Choice or Parents’ Pressure? Social Science Japan Journal 18(2): 193-216. DOI: 10.1093/ssjj/jyv012

Entrich, Steve R. (2015): Taking the risk: The impact of educational reforms on educational decision-making in Germany and Japan. In: Kobayashi, M., Trommsdorff, G., & Hommerich, C. (eds.), Trust and risks in changing societies: Proceedings of the 13th meeting of the German-Japanese Society for Social Sciences. [link] [pdf] 

Entrich, Steve R. (2014): Effects of investments in out-of-school education in Germany and Japan. Contemporary Japan 26(1): 71-102.DOI: 10.1515/cj-2014-0004  [link] [pdf] 

Entrich, Steve R. (2014): German and Japanese Education in the Shadow - Do Out-of-school Lessons Really Contribute to Class Reproduction? IAFOR Journal of Education 2(2): 17-53. DOI:  [link] [pdf]

Entrich, Steve R. (2013): Institutionalisierte Nachhilfe - ein vernachlässigtes Thema in der Bildungsforschung? Zeitschrift für Soziologie der Erziehung und Sozialisation 33(3): 321-327. (in German) DOI: 10.3262/ZSE1303321 [link] [pdf]

Entrich, Steve R. (2013): Causes and Effects of Investments in Shadow Education in Japan - A Comparative Point of View. In: Fumiaki Ojima & Sohei Aramaki (eds.), Gendai kōkōsei no shinro to seikatsu [Career and life of high school students today]. Kyoto: Doshisha Publishing: 157-182. [link] [pdf] 

Books and Edited Volumes

Entrich, Steve R. [Hrsg.] (2020): Extended Education at College and its Outcomes. Special issue of International Journal of Research on Extended Education 8(2): forthcoming.

Entrich, Steve R. (2018): Shadow Education and Social Inequalities in Japan: Evolving Patterns and Conceptual Implications. Heidelberg: Springer.

Entrich, Steve R. (2016): Shadow Education in Japan: An Instrument to Neutralize Disadvantaged Family Background? The Second Schooling System’s Contributions to Educational Opportunities. Doctoral Dissertation. Potsdam: University of Potsdam.

Entrich, Steve R. (2011): The Foundation of the Modern Japanese Education System - Joseph C. Trainor and the American Occupational Education Reforms Japan Following World War Two. Hamburg: Diplomica Verlag. (in German)

Working Papers, Reviews, and Online Articles

Entrich, Steve R. (2013): Review of: Private Tutoring Across the Mediterranean - Power Dynamics and Implications for Learning and Equity. Edited by Mark Bray, André E. Mazawi & Ronald G. Sultana. Rotterdam, Boston, Taipei: Sense Publishers, 2013. International Journal of Educational Development.

Entrich, Steve R. (2013): Review of: Education and Equal Opportunity in Japan. By Akito Okada. New York, Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2012.Pacific Affairs 86(2): 411-413. 

Entrich, Steve R. (2013): Juku - A Necessary Evil? Jukupedia.

Entrich, Steve R. (2012): German and Japanese Education in the Shadow - Do Out-of-School Lessons really contribute to Class Reproduction? ACE Conference Proceedings4: 236-252.

Entrich, Steve R. (2012): Shadow Education in Germany and Japan - An Introduction to the State of Research. Potsdam: Universitätsverlag. (in German)

Entrich, Steve R. (2011): German Nachhilfe. Jukupedia.

Entrich, Steve R. (2011): Juku-Flyer: Learning American English in Chinese Juku-Courses in Summer. Jukupedia.

Entrich, Steve R. (2009): The Pedagogue Ernst Krieck - National Socialist out of Conviction? - Krieck's Works on Trial. München: GRIN Verlag Gmbh. (in German)

Entrich, Steve R. (2008): China's "Energy-Imperialism" in Africa - Oil at all Costs? München: GRIN Verlag Gmbh. (in German)

Entrich, Steve R. (2008): The Future of Germany - The Creation of equal Opportunities? PISA Results Put to the Test. München: GRIN Verlag Gmbh. (in German)

Entrich, Steve R. (2008): Right-Wing Extremistic Teenagers in the GDR. The Reproducing of Fascist Thoughts and Habits within the GDR-Youth. München: GRIN Verlag Gmbh. (in German)

Entrich, Steve R. (2008): Juvenile Violence as a Result of a Culture Specific Concept of Manhood? Juvenile Violence in Germany and Japan in Comparison. München: GRIN Verlag Gmbh. (in German)

Entrich, Steve R. (2008): Culture Specific Forms of Hegemonic Manhood - Analyses about the Concepts of Manhood as a Cause of Violence and Crime in Australia and Japan. München: GRIN Verlag Gmbh. (in German)

Entrich, Steve R. (2008): War Education and social Condition of Children in World War I. War Propaganda and Military Training. München: GRIN Verlag Gmbh. (in German)

Entrich, Steve R. (2007): Augusteian Fleet Policy. The Development of Standing Fleets as Shown at the Classis Germanica. München: GRIN Verlag Gmbh. (in German)

Entrich, Steve R. (2007): The American Foreign Policy as a Respondence to Japan's Aggression towards China (1928-1941) - The Way towards an Inescapable War between the U.S. and Japan? München: GRIN Verlag Gmbh. (in German)

Entrich, Steve R. (2007): National Socialist School Education - NS-Elite Schools as Successor of Former Rural Approved Schools? München: GRIN Verlag Gmbh. (in German)

Entrich, Steve R. (2006): The American Revolution - Great Britain's own Fault? München: GRIN Verlag Gmbh. (in German)