Our research concerns the psychological mechanisms of educational inequalities and the question of how to deal with student heterogeneity in schools in order to reduce educational inequalities and increase individual educational opportunities. Working at the interface between psychology, educational science, and sociology, we investigate interactions between family- and school-based teaching-learning processes at the microlevel and contextual conditions of schools and the school system at the meso- and macrolevel. This involves using multimethod approaches as well as engaging in close collaborations with school practitioners.