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Der Forschungsschwerpunkt Kognitionswissenschaften veranstaltet im Sommersemester 2017 eine Ringvorlesung mit dem Titel "Lernen - kognitionswissenschaftliche Perspektiven". Die Vorlesung wird im Rahmen von Studium Plus angeboten und steht allen Studierenden und Interessierten offen. Das Thema wird von fünfzehn verschiedenen Vortragenden aus so unterschiedlichen Disziplinen wie der Germanistik, der Linguistik, der Mathematik, der Psychologie und den Sport- und Bewegungswissenschaften beleuchtet.
Specific Aspects of Motor Learning: Effects of Balance Challenging Exercises across the Lifespan
Over the last decades, demographic change affected societies of western industrialized countries in terms of decreases in the proportion of young people and increases in that of elderly. Both age groups have deficits in motor performance in common that are primarily caused by maturation (children, adolescents), biological aging (seniors), and physical inactivity (children, adolescents, seniors). More specifically, deficits in postural control (e.g., increased postural sway, decreased gait speed) can already be observed in youth and particularly in seniors . Of note, there is evidence of an association between deficits in postural control and the prevalence of sustaining lower extremity injuries in youth . Further, low gait speed has been identified as a marker for frailty and represents an additional risk factor for functional decline in old adults . Therefore, it is not surprising that rate of falls and fall-related injuries are particularly high in seniors .
Numerous studies proved the effectiveness of balance training as a means to lower rate and risk of falls and injuries in different cohorts (e.g., adolescents, athletes, seniors). In addition, there is evidence that balance training has the potential to improve everyday activities and sports performance. More recently, it has been reported that specific types of balance training (e.g., dual-task balance training, perturbation-based balance training) may even have additive effects over traditional balance training on measures of postural control . These findings will be included in my lecture and the aim of my talk will be to present data from selected original work, systematic reviews and meta-analyses on the impact of balance training on motor performance and fall/injury rate in different cohorts across the lifespan.
1. Granacher, U., et al., An intergenerational approach in the promotion of balance and strength for fall prevention - a mini-review. Gerontology, 2011. 57(4): p. 304-15.
2. Gribble, P.A., J. Hertel, and P. Plisky, Using the Star Excursion Balance Test to Assess Dynamic Postural-Control Deficits and Outcomes in Lower Extremity Injury: A Literature and Systematic Review. J Athl Training, 2012. 47(3): p. 339-357.
3. Abellan van Kan, G., et al., Gait speed at usual pace as a predictor of adverse outcomes in community-dwelling older people an International Academy on Nutrition and Aging (IANA) Task Force. J Nutr Health Aging, 2009. 13(10): p. 881-9.
4. Granacher, U., et al., Comparison of traditional and recent approaches in the promotion of balance and strength in older adults. Sports Med, 2011. 41(5): p. 377-400.